- Folic Acid And Breastfeeding
- How Do I Store Folic Acid?
- Recommended Intake Levels
- Folate Deficiency
- Vitamin B12
- Ques: Should I Use Folic Acid 5 Mg Tablet Empty Stomach, Before Food Or After Food?
- Vitamin B12, Folic Acid And Homocysteine
- Good Sources Of Folate
In the UK and Ireland in the 1980s, before women were advised to a take Harlow supplements, about 1 in 200 pregnancies resulted in a baby with a neural tube defect. Low folate levels at this important time can increase the risk of neural tube defects and possibly other problems in the baby. Because of the difference in bioavailability between supplemented folic acid and the different forms of folate found in food, the dietary folate equivalent system was established. The reason for the difference is that when folic acid is added to food or taken as a dietary supplement with food it is at least 85% absorbed, whereas only about 50% of folate naturally present in food is absorbed. The terms “folate” and “folic acid” have somewhat different meanings in different contexts, although sometimes used interchangeably.
Folic acid supplements are unlikely to cause any side-effects. The 5 mg tablets may, on rare occasions, cause mild upset stomach . If you experience any symptoms which you think may be due to the tablets, speak with your doctor or pharmacist for advice. As well as taking folic acid, try to eat a healthy diet containing lightly cooked green leafy vegetables. An important role for folate and vitamin B12 is their role in the methylation of SAM.
The prevalence of NTD live births for wāhine Māori, Pasifika and European/other women was 4.58, 4.09 and 2.81 per 10,000 births respectively. Between 2011 and 2015, the estimated NTD prevalence was 10.6 per 10,000 total births . There was an average of 64 recorded NTD-affected pregnancies a year, 26 of which were live births. Our Housecall e-newsletter will keep you up-to-date on the latest health information. Get the latest health information from Mayo Clinic’s experts. Delving the role of nutritional psychiatry to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic induced stress, anxiety and depression.
In adults, anemia can be a sign of advanced folate deficiency. Folic acid is effective in the treatment of megaloblastic anemias due to a deficiency of folic acid and in anemias of nutritional origin, pregnancy, infancy, or childhood. In man, an exogenous source of folate is required for nucleoprotein synthesis and the maintenance of normal erythropoiesis. Folic acid is the precursor of tetrahydrofolic acid, which is involved as a cofactor for transformylation reactions in the biosynthesis of purines and thymidylates of nucleic acids. Impairment of thymidylate synthesis in patients with folic acid deficiency is thought to account for the defective deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis that leads to megaloblast formation and megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias. Methotrexate is the leading disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug given to people with rheumatoid arthritis and many other types of inflammatory arthritis.
In fact, leafy vegetables are among the best dietary sources of folate. Williams PJ, Bulmer JN, Innes BA, Broughton Pipkin F. Possible roles for folic acid in the regulation of trophoblast invasion and placental development in normal early human pregnancy. Folic acid supplementation in early second trimester and the risk of preeclampsia.
It effectively controls high blood pressure, macular degeneration and strokes. While the role of folate as a cancer treatment is well established, its long-term effectiveness is diminished by cellular response. In response to decreased tetrahydrofolate , the cell begins to transcribe more DHF reductase, the enzyme that reduces DHF to THF. Because methotrexate is a competitive inhibitor of DHF reductase, increased concentrations of DHF reductase can overcome the drugs inhibition. Mandatory folic acid fortification of non-organic bread-making wheat flour does not change New Zealand’s policy for folic acid supplementation.
While the Food Standards Agency recommended folic acid fortification, and wheat flour is fortified with iron, folic acid fortification of wheat flour is allowed voluntarily rather than required. A 2018 review by authors based in the United Kingdom strongly recommended that mandatory fortification be reconsidered as a means of reducing the risk of neural tube defects. Studies suggest that insufficient folate and vitamin B12 status may contribute to major depressive disorder and that supplementation might be useful in this condition.
More information can be found in the the Health Education resourceFolic Acid and Iodine. Folic acid refers to pteroylmonoglutamic acid and is the synthetic (‘man made’) form of folate. Folic acid is used in dietary supplements and fortified foods and beverages.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance for folate during pregnancy is 600 micrograms (µg)/day. Folate deficiencyFolic acid, a precursor of active B9SpecialtyEndocrinologyFolate deficiency, also known as vitamin B9 deficiency, is a low level of folate and derivatives in the body. A low number of red blood cells is a late finding in folate deficiency and folate deficiency anemia is the term given for this medical condition. It is characterized by the appearance of large-sized, abnormal red blood cells , which form when there are inadequate stores of folic acid within the body.
Even if you have one or two copies of the MTHFR C677T variant, your body can safely and effectively process the different types of folate, including folic acid. People often use the two interchangeably as they are both forms of vitamin B9 but in fact there is an important difference. Folic acid is the synthesized version that is commonly used in processed foods and supplements. Folate can be found in whole foods such as leafy vegetables, eggs, and citrus fruits.
The methylcoblamin in turn releases its methyl group to homocysteine in a further step, which converts it to methionine. Methionine is then the actual methyl group donor in the metabolism and plays an important role in the methylation of genes, proteins and lipids. Methylfolate quickly oxidises when it comes into contact with the air. In order to stabilise it as an active ingredient, it must therefore be bound to certain highly soluble salts that protect the folate and only allow it to release in the stomach. Today, various calcium salts and a glucosamine salt of L-5-MTHF are available . A lack of folic acid can hence lead to many severe symptoms, such as anaemia, depression, gastrointestinal problems and weight loss.
When methotrexate is prescribed, folic acid supplements are sometimes given with the methotrexate. The therapeutic effects of methotrexate are due to its inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase and thereby reduce the rate de novo purine and pyrimidine synthesis and cell division. Methotrexate inhibits cell division and is particularly toxic to fast dividing cells, such as rapidly dividing cancer cells and the progenitor cells of the immune system. Folate supplementation is beneficial in patients being treated with long-term, low-dose methotrexate for inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or psoriasis, to avoid macrocytic anemia caused by folate deficiency. Folate is often also supplemented before some high dose chemotherapy treatments in an effort to protect healthy tissue.
But not all carbohydrates are created equal, and rice in particular is one that offers many health benefits and may assist in maintaining a calorie-controlled eating plan. Folic acid works with vitamin B12 and vitamin C to help the body break down, use, and make new proteins. It also helps produce DNA, the building block of the human body, which carries genetic information. Thus, a deficiency in B12 can generate a large pool of methyl-THF that is unable to undergo reactions and will mimic folate deficiency. The usual therapeutic dosage in adults and children is up to 1 mg daily.
Folic Acid And Breastfeeding
Because the neural tube closes in the first four weeks of gestation, often before many women even know they are pregnant, many countries in time decided to implement mandatory food fortification programs. Observational studies show that people who get higher than average amounts of folate from their diets or folic acid supplements for 15 years or more have lower risks of colon cancer and breast cancer. This could be especially important for those who drink alcohol, since alcohol interferes with the proper metabolism of folate and inactivates circulating folate.
Methotrexate is a medication used to treat certain cancers and autoimmune diseases. One study reported a fatality due to intentional excessive folic acid ingestion . Folic acid is nearly 100% bioavailable when taken on an empty stomach and 85% bioavailable when taken with food.
Taking a daily prenatal vitamin — ideally starting three months before conception — can help ensure women get enough of this essential nutrient. Pregnant women in particular need a good supply of folic acid because it is used by the developing baby. It has been shown that taking folic acid supplements decreases the chance of spina bifida and other neural tube defects in the baby. The very early stages of pregnancy are crucial in the need for folic acid and this is why folic acid supplements are recommended for women planning a pregnancy. Folate deficiency can also cause congenital neural tube defects, the incidence of which is reduced by the administration of folic acid supplements in pregnant women.
This tiny, but mighty, grain packs a serious nutritional punch. Because folate is not stored in the body in large amounts, your blood levels will get low after CBD + THC Gummies only a few weeks of eating a diet low in folate. Folate is found primarily in legumes, leafy greens, eggs, beets, bananas, citrus fruits, and liver.
The relationship between maternal and neonatal umbilical cord plasma homocystine suggests a potential role for maternal homocysteine in fetal metabolism. Amendment of standards of identity for enriched grain products to require addition of folic acid. It is important to know that there are other extremely rare MTHFR gene variants not discussed here.
How Do I Store Folic Acid?
So for people who have cancer or precancerous growths, nutritional supplements may be a double-edged sword. If you have cancer, make sure to check with your doctor before beginning any vitamin supplement regimen. What’s more, All CBD Bodycare supplements may help reduce high blood pressure, a known heart disease risk factor . This is because folate deficiency is somewhat common, and some populations, including older adults and pregnant women, find it difficult to obtain the recommended dietary intake through diet . A folate deficiency can lead to complications, especially in pregnant women. Low folate levels in pregnant women have been linked to birth abnormalities, such as neural tube defects .
Taking folic acid by mouth, with or without other supplements, may improve memory and thinking skills in older people who have a larger decline in thinking skills than expected at that age. But it doesn’t seem to work in older people who are experiencing the usual decline in thinking skills for their age. Whole grains, such as brown rice, help reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers. In folate-deficiency anemia, the red blood cells are abnormally large . Additional signs are weakness, sore tongue, headaches, heart palpitations, irritability, and behavioral disorders.
However, at blood concentrations achieved via food fortification, folic acid has no known cofactor function that would increase the likelihood of a causal role for free FA in disease development. People with a genetic mutation of an enzyme called methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase have trouble converting folate from food and supplements to its active form, 5-MTHF. Decreased levels of 5-MTHF can raise homocysteine levels and increase the risk for neural tube defects in babies. These individuals may need to take a supplement containing the active form of folate.
Since the advent of mandatory folic acid fortification in 1998, neural tube birth defects have dropped by 28%, and studies have shown that far fewer people have low levels of folate in their blood. A meta-analysis of folate supplementation during pregnancy reported a 28% lower relative risk of newborn congenital heart defects. Prenatal supplementation with folic acid did not appear to reduce the risk of preterm births. One systematic review indicated no effect of folic acid on mortality, growth, body composition, respiratory, or cognitive outcomes of children from birth to 9 years old. There was no relation between maternal folic acid supplementation and an increased risk for childhood asthma.
Folic acid is the man-made version of the vitamin folate . If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist. If you have any unusual effects from taking this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.
Recommended Intake Levels
Many foods contain folic acid, including spinach, sprouts, broccoli, green beans, peas, chickpeas, brown rice, kidney, liver and potatoes. Some people, for various reasons, may not receive enough from their diet alone. Folic acid is important for the production of red blood cells. A lack of it can lead to anaemia, which can cause tiredness and sometimes other symptoms. Folic acid deficiency is treated easily by taking a course of folic acid tablets for a few months. RBC folate provides information about folate status over the lifetime of RBCs, similar to hemoglobin A1C as used in blood glucose monitoring.
Folate is naturally found in leafy green vegetables, organ meats , citrus fruits, and other foods. Folic acid is added to enriched grain products such as bread, pasta, and cereal. Consult your doctor or dietician for a diet plan rich in folate/folic acid. Tetrahydrofolate’s main function in metabolism is transporting single-carbon groups (i.e., a methyl group, methylene group, or formyl group).
People carrying a variant of the gene MTHFR cannot convert folate to its active form to be used by the body. For this reason, many experts recommend supplementing with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate over folic acid. Additionally, folate supplements may be helpful for those with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol interferes with folate absorption and increases urinary excretion. People who regularly consume large amounts of alcohol may benefit from supplementing with folate . In addition to C677T, there are many other variants related to folate metabolism, including MTRR A66G, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, and FOLH1 T484C, that affect folate metabolism.
The study found that taking a daily pill with 1,000 micrograms of folic acid offered no protection against new polyps, and, more worrisome, increased the risk of developing multiple or more serious polyps. Since the 1990s, flour and other food staples have been fortified with folic acid based on study results linking low folate status in women with a significantly increased risk of neural tube defects in their children. CDC recommends that these women consume 4,000 mcg of folic acid each day one month before becoming pregnant and through the first 3 months of pregnancy.
Unfortunately, a large percentage of women (up to 60%) have a defect in theirMTHFR gene that doesn’t allow them to properly convert synthetic folic acid into active methylfolate. As such women taking folic acid may not be absorbing their B vitamins as expected. For this reason it’s preferable to take folate either from whole food sources or supplements that containing the natural form of active folate instead of synthesized folic acid whenever possible.
You should eat a balanced diet rich in natural folate from food, but it is very difficult to get the recommended amount of folate from food alone. People with MTHFR C677T variants can process all types of folate, including How does 1000mg CBD Gummies compare against 500mg and 250mg CBD gummy bears?. Did results from a genetic test tell you that you have a methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variant? You may have questions about what this means for your health, especially when it comes to your body’s ability to process folate.
Pregnant women and breastfeeding women have increased folate needs and need to take in 600 mcg and 500 mcg DFE of folate per day, respectively . Folic acid, on the other hand, is added to foods like flour, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals, and bread. Folic acid is also sold in concentrated form in dietary supplements.
Chronically insufficient intake of folate may increase the risk of colorectal, breast, ovarian, pancreatic, brain, lung, cervical, and prostate cancers. Folate is especially important during periods of frequent cell division and growth, such as infancy and pregnancy. Folate deficiency hinders DNA synthesis and cell division, affecting hematopoietic cells and neoplasms the most because of their greater frequency of cell division. RNA transcription and subsequent protein synthesis are less affected by folate deficiency, as the mRNA can be recycled and used again . Taking What does a Delta-10 high feel like? by mouth with vitamin B12 doesn’t seem to help older people walk better or have stronger hands. Taking folic acid by mouth with vitamin B12 does not seem to prevent falls in older people who are also taking vitamin D.
Methotrexate, for example, is a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor that prevents the conversion of inactive folate to its active form, THF. The main presentation of folate deficiency is megaloblastic anemia without neurologic changes, in contrast to vitamin-B12 deficiency, in which neurologic changes may be observed. It is converted to its active form, tetrahydrofolic acid , by the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. However, they do not have the same effects on your health. Folinic acid is superior to folic acid, as it’s more effective at raising blood folate levels . This is because adverse effects have not been reported from a high intake of folate from foods.
Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version. There is some concern that taking large amounts of folic acid might increase the side effects of capecitabine, especially stomach problems like diarrhea and vomiting. Talk with your healthcare provider before taking folic acid.
A skin disorder that causes white patches to develop on the skin . Taking folic acid by mouth seems to improve symptoms of this condition. Pregnant women commonly have this blood test at prenatal checkups. Homocysteine is elevated (5-MTHF is used to convert homocysteine to methionine) as in vitamin B12 deficiency, whereas methylmalonic acid is normal . Folate is absorbed throughout the small intestine, though mainly in the jejunum. Important steps in the absorption are reduction of the polyglutamate chain by pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (gamma-glutamyl hydrolase) and then transport across the brush border membrane by the proton-coupled folate transporter .
This strength of folic acid tablet is not available to buy. Consuming 400 mcg of folic acid each day helps prevent neural tube defects, even if you have an MTHFR C677T variant. Taking a supplement with more than 400 mcg of folic acid each day is not necessarily better for preventing a neural tube defect. However, a doctor might recommend taking more than 400 mcg if you have other health conditions, or you have already had a baby with a neural tube defect.
The following are the most common benefits and uses of folic acid and folate supplements. Both folic acid and folate are commonly used in supplemental form for a variety of reasons. Synthetic folic acid is thought to have 100% absorbability when consumed on an empty stomach, while folic acid found in fortified foods is thought to have only 85% absorbability. Naturally occurring folate has a much lower absorbability of around 50%. This article explores vitamin E supplements and their benefits, dosage, and side effects. Although high folic acid intake is a concern, the health implications are unclear, and further studies are needed.
This four electron reduction proceeds in two chemical steps both catalyzed by the same enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase. Folic acid is first reduced to dihydrofolate and then to tetrahydrofolate. Each step consumes one molecule of NADPH and produces one molecule of NADP. Mechanistically, hydride is transferred from NADPH to the C6 position of the pteridine ring.
They can start consuming it right from the time they plan to conceive. Consumption of this medicine will significantly lower any chances of birth defects. The Department of Health and Social Care recommends that folic acid supplements are taken by all women who are pregnant or could get pregnant. This is to help prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, in your baby. This involved a literature review and analysis of the available scientific evidence from New Zealand and internationally on the health benefits and risks of folic acid fortification.
Ques: Should I Use Folic Acid 5 Mg Tablet Empty Stomach, Before Food Or After Food?
Alternatives to folic acid supplements include 5-MTHT or whole foods, such as leafy greens. Among elderly people, high folic acid levels can mask vitamin B12 deficiency. Untreated vitamin B12 deficiency may increase your risk of dementia and impair nerve function .
The two most effective active ingredients are metafolin and quatrefolic, which supply the active form L-5-MTHF (L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate) directly. Vitamins, herbal therapies, and supplements have the potential to interact with each other, as well as with prescription and over the counter medications. It is important to tell your veterinarian about any medications that your pet is taking. There are differences in how countries regulate supplements. In Canada, products that have been evaluated for quality, safety, and effectiveness by Health Canada and authorized for sale will have a license number on the label. If testing is not being performed immediately, specimens may be stored at 2-8 ºC for 7 days or at -10 ºC for 30 days.
The B vitamins are water-soluble, so any excess that your body can’t immediately use is carried out in urine. Because of this, many people think that taking high-dose supplements isn’t harmful, and with some B vitamins — B12, for example — it’s not. Take your folic acid supplement as directed , with or without food. You may hear people suggest that you skip taking folic acid the same day that you take your methotrexate, but the jury is out on the benefit of doing this. This medicine, contrary to most others, is very safe for pregnant women and those who plan to get pregnant.
Folic acid might increase how quickly the body breaks down phenytoin. Taking folic acid and taking phenytoin might decrease the effectiveness of phenytoin and increase the possibility of seizures. Taking folic acid by mouth along with antidepressants seems to improve symptoms in some people with depression. Folate is acquired in the diet by the consumption of leafy green vegetables, legumes and organ meats.
Folate is the natural form of vitamin B9 in food, while folic acid is a synthetic form. Other supplements contain 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), also known as levomefolate, which is considered an adequate alternative to folic acid . However, one study suggests that taking folic acid along with other B vitamins, particularly vitamin B6, makes the conversion more efficient . As a result, unmetabolized folic acid is commonly detected in people’s bloodstreams, even in the fasted state .
Folic acid works with vitamins B-6 and B-12 to control high levels of homocysteine in the blood. Elevated homocysteine levels might increase your risk of diseases of the heart and blood vessels . Folic acid is also used alongside methotrexate treatment in people with severe Crohn’s disease, psoriasis, and arthritis. When it is used in these medical conditions, folic acid is taken on a different day of the week to methotrexate. It is taken to reduce the side-effects which can be caused by methotrexate. Extra folic acid is advised for at least the first 12 weeks of pregnancy for all women – even if you are healthy and have a good diet.
Good Sources Of Folate
You may report side effects to FDA at FDA-1088 or at /medwatch. If your doctor has directed you to use this product, remember that your doctor has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this product do not have serious side effects. Take this product regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time each day. Follow the diet plan recommended by your doctor or dietician.
THF is involved in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine; hence, elevated homocysteine levels are noted in folate deficiency. Heart diseaseIn 1968, a Boston pathologist investigated the deaths of two children from massive strokes. Both had inherited conditions that caused them to have extremely high levels of a protein breakdown product in their blood, and CBD Öl Hanfsamen both had arteries as clogged with cholesterol as those of a 65-year-old fast food addict. Putting one and one together, he hypothesized that elevated levels of this breakdown product—called homocysteine—would contribute to the artery-clogging process of atherosclerosis. However, toxicity is rare, as folate is water-soluble and readily excreted from the body.
This medicine has other uses apart from creating requisite vitamins in our body. It helps in fighting diseases like liver ailment, anaemia and helps patients of dialysis and alcohol addiction. The name antifolate usually refers to drugs whose folate antagonism is intentional. In contrast, there are some other drugs, of several drug classes, that antagonize folate incidentally, as an adverse effect, whether mildly or heavily. This effect is often not noticeable except when it causes a neural tube defect in a fetus carried by a woman taking the medication. Such drugs include some anticonvulsants and trimethoprim.
New Zealand was also planning to fortify bread starting in 2009, but then opted to wait until more research was done. In 2012 the delayed mandatory fortification program was revoked and replaced by a voluntary program, with the hope of achieving a 50% bread fortification target. A complex interaction occurs between folic acid, vitamin B12, and iron. A deficiency of folic acid or vitamin B12 may mask the deficiency of iron; so when taken as dietary supplements, the three need to be in balance. Folate is important for cells and tissues that divide rapidly.
Long-term use of folic acid dietary supplements in excess of 1,000 μg/day has been linked to an increase in prostate cancer risk. Sickle cell anemia and living in areas of malaria result in even higher folate needs for women who are pregnant. When supplemented with 450 micrograms of folic acid per day, the risk of developing birth defects, specifically neural tube defects, is decreased. Supplementation to prevent birth defects is most effective one month prior to and during the first twelve weeks of pregnancy. Utilization of folic acid supplementation before conception has shown to result in a decrease in neural tube defects by 70%. Since these early observations about homocysteine, most but not all studies have linked high levels of homocysteine with a modest increase in risk of heart disease and stroke.
It is more bio-available and stable, than naturally occurring food folate. There isn’t enough evidence to support folic acid supplementation for the prevention of dementia. The most serious consequences of a folic acid deficiency can be seen during pregnancy. Here it can lead to miscarriage, malformations, premature birth, heart defects and development disorders .
This type of folic acid is possibly safe for most people in doses up to about 400 mcg daily. Cerebral folate deficiency is when levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate are low in the brain as measured in the cerebral spinal fluid despite being normal in the blood. Without treatment there may be poor muscle tone, trouble with coordination, trouble talking, and seizures. The causes of cerebral folate deficiency include mutations of genes responsible for folate metabolism and transport. Mutations of the SLC46A1 gene that encodes the proton-coupled folate transporter result in CFD syndromes with both systemic folate deficiency and cerebral folate deficiency. Even when the systemic deficiency is corrected by folate, the cerebral deficiency remains and must be treated with folinic acid.
Folic acid supplements were most protective in studies that lasted at least three years and that combined folic acid with vitamins B6 and B12. Trials that enrolled more men than women also showed more of a benefit, perhaps because men are at higher risk of stroke in general. Ultimately, folic acid supplementation may only reduce the risk of heart disease in people who have lower levels of folate intake, most likely in countries that do not fortify their food supply with folic acid.
Bailey LB, Berry RJ. Folic acid supplementation and the occurrence of congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, multiple births, and miscarriage. Antenatal supplementation with micronutrients and biochemical indicators of status and subclinical infection in rural Nepal. Prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly during the transition to mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States. Maternal serum folate species in early pregnancy and risk of preterm birth. Multivitamins that include folic acid should only be used as a supplement under the supervision of your health care provider.
Folic acid will help you make healthy red blood cells and improve or prevent the symptoms of anaemia. Laboratory and/or medical tests (such as complete blood count, folate blood level, vitamin B-12 blood level) should be performed periodically to monitor your progress. For U.S. food and dietary supplement labeling purposes the amount in a serving is expressed as a percent of Daily Value (%DV). For folate labeling purposes 100% of the Daily Value was 400 μg. As of the 27 May 2016 update, it was kept unchanged at 400 μg.
The incidence of genetic variants that influence folate metabolism varies depending on ethnicity and geographical location. For example, the C677T mutation is more common in American Indian, Mexican Mestizo, and Chinese Les oursons au CBD sont-ils un antidouleur ? Han populations . Folate is found in a number of plant and animal foods, including spinach, kale, broccoli, avocado, citrus fruits, eggs, and beef liver. Vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for depression.